THE BOOK OF JIHAD
ByAbi Zakaryya Al Dimashqi Al Dumyati“Ibn-Nuhaas”(D. 814 Hijri)
Translated By Noor Yamani
CHAPTER 1: ON THE COMMAND OF JIHAD AGAINST THE NON BELIEVERS AND ITS MANDATE, AND THE STERN WARNING AGAINST THOSE WHO DON’T PRACTICE JIHAD:
The Command To Fight:
“Fighting has been enjoined upon you while it is hateful to you. But perhaps you hate a thing and it is good for you; and perhaps you love a thing and it is bad for you. And Allah knows, while you know not”14“
And fight in the cause of Allah and know that Allah is Hearing and Knowing”15“
And if it were not for Allah checking [some] people by means of others, the earth would have been corrupted, but Allah is full of bounty to the worlds”16“
Then kill the polytheists wherever you find them and capture them and besiege them and sit in wait for them at every place of ambush”17“
Fight those who do not believe in Allah or in the Last Day and who do not consider unlawful what Allah and His Messenger have made unlawful and who do not adopt the religion of truth [i.e., Islam] from those who were given the Scripture – [fight] until they give the jizyah18
willingly while they are humbled”19
Imam Al Haleemi in Suab al Iman:Allah clarified that if it weren’t for Allah checking the nonbelievers through the believers and giving the believers authority to protect Islam and break the armies of disbelief, disbelief would have reigned on earth and the true religion would have been eliminated. This proves that the reason for the survival of religion (i.e., Islam) is Jihad and whatever is in this status deserves to be a pillar of Iman.1. On the authority of Ibn Umar (may Allah be pleased with him), the...
14 (al Baqara 216)
15 (al Baqara 244)
16 (al Baqara 251)
17 (al Tawba 5)
18 Jizyah: A tax imposed on the Christian and Jewish subjects of the Muslim Khilafah.
19 (al Tawba 29)
Messenger of Allah () said: “I have been ordered to fight against the people until they testify that there is none worthy of worship except Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, establish the prayer and give the zakah. Then, if they do that, their blood and wealth will be protected from me – except in accordance with the right of Islam. And their reckoning will be with Allah, the Exalted”20
It was narrated by Ibn Umar, Abu Huraira, Jabir Ibn Abdullah, Anas bin Malik, Jareer ibn Abdullah, Aus ibn Abu Aus, ibn Abbaas, Sahl ibn Saad, al-Numaan ibn Basheer, Tariq ibn Ashyam, Abu Bakrah, Muadh bin Jabal and Samura bin Jundub.Thus, the hadith is Mutawatir, the absolute strongest form of Hadith.Among a few interpretations Ibn Hajjar mentions the strongest is that people are fought to establish the dominance of Allah’s law. This objective can be met through many means. It could be met by fighting them. It can also be met by them accepting the law of Allah and paying the Jizyah. It can also be met by some sort of peace accord between Muslims and others, in which the non-Muslims will not oppose the word of Allah in any way.
2. Abu Muthana Al Abdi said I heard Abu Al Khasasyah say “I came to the Messenger of Allah and said I would pledge allegiance to him. The Messenger of Allah took the pledge from me ‘to testify that there is none worthy of worship other than Allah that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, to pray the five prayers, to fast Ramadan, to pay Zakah, to make Hajj, and to fight in the sake of Allah.’ I said ‘O Messenger of Allah, Two of those I cannot do. The first is Zakah. I only have ten camels. They constitute my entire wealth. The second is Jihad; I heard that whoever runs away from the battlefield has incurred the wrath of Allah. I am afraid if fighting faces me I might fear death and my spirit would fail me.’ Rasulullah grabbed his hand and waved it and said, ‘No sadaqah and no Jihad! How can you then enter into Jannah?’”. Abu al Khasasyah then said: The Messenger of Allah took my pledge on every term he mentioned.” 21...
20 Bukhari, Muslim, Tirmithi, Nasa’i, Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah, Ahmad, al-Bayhaqi, Ibn Habbaan, al-Darqutni, and Imam Malik.
21 Narrated by Al Hakim and authenticated it.
3. Salamah bin Nufail said: While I was sitting with Rasulullah a man came to him and said, “O Messenger of Allah Horses are being discarded and weapons are been laid down and some are claiming that there is no more fighting” Rasulullah said, “They are lying! Fighting has just begun! And a party of my Ummah will fight for the sake of Allah, and those who oppose them will not harm them. Allah will deviate the hearts of some men to provide for that party from them by fighting them. And they will continue fighting until the final hour starts (the Day of Judgment) and good will remain on the foreheads of horses until the day of Judgment and war will not end until Yagog and Magog come out.”22
A similar hadith was narrated by Imam al Nasa’i and is hasan (agreeable):
4. Salamah bin Nufail said: While I was sitting with Rasulullah a man came to him and said, “O Messenger of Allah Horses are being humiliated (ignored), and weapons are being laid down and people are claiming there is no more Jihad and war has ended” Rasulullah said: “They are lying! Fighting has just begun! Fighting has just begun! And a party of my Ummah will remain fighting on the true path and Allah will deviate the hearts of some men and Allah will provide the fighters from them until the final hour starts and the promise of Allah is fulfilled and good is on the foreheads of horses until the day of Judgment. It is being revealed to me that I will be departing you soon and you would follow me while you are fighting each other and the house of the believers is in al Shaam”23.
In the commentary on Al Nasa’i by al Sindi, he states that:“‘Humiliating horses’ means ignoring them and belittling their importance or not using them for combat.‘Now fighting has started now fighting has started’ The repetition is to reveal the importance of the message and it means that fighting is only increasing and that Allah has just prescribed it so how can it end so soon? Or it means that the real fighting has just begun...
22 Narrated by al Tabarani in Al Mujam al Kabir
23 Al Shaam refers to Syria, Lebanon, Palestine and Jordon. It could be used to refer to part or all of these countries. Narrated by Imam al Nasa’i and is hasan
because so far they have been fighting only within their territory, the land of the Arabs, but now is time for them to carry the battle to further lands.‘Allah will deviate the hearts of some’ It means Allah will always provide this party of believers with men to fight even if it means deviating their hearts from Iman to Kufur. That is to bless these believers by providing them with the honor of fighting in his sake and the ultimate pleasure of pleasing Allah.
24‘Good is on the foreheads of horses,’ Means reward and booty, or honor and pride. ‘The house of the believers is al Shaam’ that is referring to the end of time. It will be the stronghold of Islam and the land of Jihad. ”25
5. Anas narrates that the Messenger of Allah said: “Fight the nonbelievers with your wealth, arms, and tongues”
26With your tongues means hurt the non-believers by letting them hear what displeases them.6. The Messenger of Allah said: “I have five commands for you: To Listen, to obey, to fight jihad, to make hijrah, and to stay with the jama’ah”27
7. Ibn Abbaas narrates that the Messenger of Allah said, “There is no Hijrah after the opening of Makkah but there is Jihad and intentions and if you are called to fight then fight”28
Allah says:“Go forth, whether light of heavy, and strive with your wealth and...
24 Trans. Note: [In other words Allah will never deprive the Ummah from the opportunity of Jihad. Even if one were to assume that the whole world would become Muslim, Allah would deviate the hearts of some from Islam to disbelieve so that the Mujahideen can fight them]
25 Trans. Note: [We have a right to ask: Where have these hadiths been? How come our scholars have left us in the dark regarding these hadiths? How come we’ve heard the hadiths on Taharah and the etiquettes of the toilet hundreds of times while one has to dig deep in our classical books to retrieve these treasures?]
26 Sahih, al Nasa’i, Abu Dawud, Ahmad, and al Hakim
27 Tirmithi – Ahmad – AbdulRazaq (Hassan)
28 Bukhari and Muslim
your lives in the cause of Allah. That is better for you, if you only knew”Comments on the meaning of “light and heavy” in this verse:Abi Saleh said: The young and old. Also Qatadah said: Active or inactive, energetic or not .It is narrated that Abu Ayub al Ansari took a rest from Jihad for a year. He then recited this ayah and said, “I do not find for myself an excuse in this ayah” so he resumed his Jihad.Abu Shaybah narrated with an authentic narration to al Hakam: Busy or preoccupied.It is also said the “heavy” is the one who has property which he fears would be lost if he joins Jihad. While the “light” is the one with no property to worry about.Al Qurtubi says, “the ayah is general and applies to everyone whether joining is easy for them or not”Al Zuhri states that Ibn Al Musayab joined the army when he had already lost one of his eyes due to old age. He was told you are ill, he said, “Astaqfirullah (May Allah forgive me) Allah says the light and the heavy. If I am incapable of fighting at least I will increase the number of the army and would guard your luggage” 29
8. Abu Ya’la and al Hakim narrate with an authentic chain: Anas bin Malik said that Abu Talhah recited al Tawbah and passed by this verse “Go forth light or heavy” and said I see that Allah is calling upon me whether I am young or old. So he told his sons to prepare him for combat. They said you have already fought with Rasulullah until he died and then with Abu Bakr until he died and then with Umar. So now let us fight on your behalf. He said, “Prepare me for combat” and they did. He went on an expedition in the sea and died. They didn’t find an island to burry him until seven days latter and his body never changed.
9. AbdulRazaq narrates that Makhool used to face Qiblah and then...
29 Trans. Note: [Subhanallah, some people would use every argument to run away from fighting -when they have no excuse-while some would have a valid excuse but would nevertheless use every argument to join the fighters].
swear ten times in the name of Allah that going out in expeditions is mandatory on you. He would then face his students and say, “If you want be to swear beyond ten times I would do so”
Is Jihad Fard Kifayah Or Fard Ayn?
Realize that attacking the non-believers in their territories is a collective duty (fardh kifayah) with the consensus (ijmaa) of the scholars. However ibn al Musayeb and ibn Shubrumah state that it is a duty (fardh ayn) on each and every individual
.“The minimum participation in Jihad is once a year, and more is always better. It is not allowed to have a year pass you by without any fighting except out of necessity like the weakness of Muslims and the great numbers of the enemy, or fear of extermination if you attack them first, or lack of provisions, or similar excuses. Otherwise, if there is no necessity it is not allowed to delay attacking the non-believers for more than a year.” Imam Shafi’i states that.
The imam of al Haramain says: “I adopt the opinion of the scholars of usool. They stated that Jihad is a mandatory call and must be established according to the ability until none remains in the world but a Muslim or one who has submitted to Muslims. Thus, Jihad is not limited to once a year. It should be done more frequently if possible. What the scholars of fiqh stated is because usually the time spent in preparations for combat limit the ability to wage war to once a year.
”The author of al Mugni from the Hanbali school states: “The minimum jihad is once a year, so it is mandatory every year. If there is a need to fight more than once a year, it becomes mandatory on the Muslims to fulfill that need.
”Al Qurtubi states in his tafseer: “It is mandatory on the Imam to send an army of Muslims to the land of the enemy once every year and the Imam should participate himself in such expeditions. If not, then he should send someone capable whom he trusts, to call them to Islam, keep away their harm, to give victory to the religion of Allah, until they enter Islam or pay jizyah” 30
30 Trans. Note: [Notice that al Qurtubi states that one
of the objectives of sending the armies is to keep the harm of
the enemy away. This is an indication that
Muslims will never taste peace in their lives if they do not.
Jihad is not mandatory on children, the mentally incapable, women, and the ill. It is mandatory however, on the one-eyed, the one who is suffering from a mild illness such as a headache, a sore tooth, or fever, or the one who has a slight limp. This is in the madhab of Imam Ahmad, and I don’t know any disagreement regarding that and Allah knows best.
It is the consensus of scholars that one cannot participate in Qazw31 without the permission of the parents.
This is all regarding the Jihad, which is a collective duty (starting the non believers with war and on their territory). But if the enemy enters the Muslim land, or even approaches it and masses on its borders, even if they do not actually enter it, and there armies are double the size of that of the Muslims or less, then Jihad becomes mandatory on each and every individual. Then, the slave leaves without the permission of the master, the woman without the permission of her husband (if she has the strength to fight according to the stronger opinion), the son without the permission of the parents, and the one indebt without the permission of the lender. All of the above stated is the opinion of Imam Malik, Ahmad, and Abu Hanifah32.
If the enemy ambushes the Muslims in a certain area and they don’t have a chance to assemble together and prepare to fight, then whoever is faced by a nonbeliever, or a group of nonbelievers, and the Muslim knows that if he surrenders he would be killed, then he must fight. There is no difference in this ruling between a freeman, slave, man, woman, blind, limp, or ill. If there is only the possibility of being killed if surrendered, but would defiantly be killed if he refuses to surrender, then it is allowed to either surrender or fight, but fighting is better.
If a woman thinks if she is taken prisoner she would be sexually abused, it is mandatory on her to fight, even if that would lead to her death because if a person is forced to commit adultery or fornication it is not allowed to give in even if to save one’s life.
Now if some of the Muslims in the attacked area go to fight the enemy and they are sufficient in numbers and are capable of fighting the enemy alone,attack the enemies of Allah and on their turf. The consequences of not fulfilling that duty is the price we are paying today. If you don’t keep shaytaan in check he will not leave you alone.]
31 Qazw: Linguistically refers to “pursuit” It is used in Islamic terminology to refer to pursuing the enemy in order to fight him.
32 Trans. Note: [in addition to the madhab of the author which is Shafi’i]
it is still a duty on the rest to help. Al Mawardi states that because it is a Jihad of defense so it remains a duty on every Muslim capable of fighting in that territory.
If the nonbelievers descend on an unpopulated Muslim land that is far away from populated areas there are two opinions in that, and Al Gazali narrates both;
The first is that of the Imam al Haramain. He states that it does not become mandatory on Muslims to fight and put their lives in danger to protect such a secluded, unpopulated land.
The other opinion, which is the position of the madhab, is that it is mandatory for Muslims to fight for that land.
Imam Nawawi says the opinion of the Imam (of al Haramain, al Juwaini) is unacceptable. How can we -the Muslims-allow the non-Muslims to take away part of the Dar al Islam with our ability to protect it?
Al Qurtubi says: If the enemy just comes close to Muslim territory, even without entering it, it becomes mandatory on Muslims to go and meet the enemy in order for the religion of Islam to prevail and gain the upper hand and to humiliate the enemy.
Al Baghawi states that it is mandatory on the Muslims who are closest to the invaded land, and is a collective duty on the Muslims who are far away.
The Punishment Of Those Who Don’t Participate In Jihad:
Allah says:Say [O Muhammad], “If your fathers, your sons, your brothers, your wives, your relatives, wealth which you have obtained, commerce wherein you fear decline, and dwellings with which you are pleased, are more beloved to you than Allah and His Messenger and jihad in His cause then wait until Allah executes His command. And Allah does not guide the defiantly disobedient people”33
In this ayah is a sufficient warning for anyone who leaves jihad with their selves and their wealth Allah says:...
33 (Tawbah 24)
“O you who have believed, what is [the matter] with you that, when you are told to go forth in the cause of Allah, you adhere heavily to the earth? Are you satisfied with the life of this world rather than the Hereafter? But what is the enjoyment of worldly life compared to the Hereafter except a [very] little.
If you do not go forth, He will punish you with a painful punishment and will replace you with another people, and you will not harm Him at all. And Allah is over all things competent”34“
Those who remained behind rejoiced at their staying [at home] after [the departure of] the Messenger of Allah and disliked to strive with their wealth and their lives in the cause of Allah and said, “Do not go forth in the heat.” Say, “The fire of Hell is more intense in heat”-if they would but understandSo let them laugh a little and [then] weep much as recompense for what they used to earn.”35
10. Ibn Umar narrates: I heard the Messenger of Allah saying, “If you trade in each, and follow the tails of cows, and became content with being farmers, and ignored jihad, Allah will impose on you a humiliation that would not be taken away until you go back to your religion.”36
The meaning of the hadith is that if people ignore jihad because of their involvement in agriculture and similar affairs, Allah will unleash upon them their enemies which would bring them humiliation which cannot be eliminated unless they go back to what is a duty upon them to start with and that is jihad against the non-believers, and being harsh and rough on them, and establishing religion to give Islam and its followers victory and to raise the word of Allah high and to humiliate disbelief and its followers. This hadith shows that leaving jihad is leaving Islam because the Messenger of Allah said: “until you go back to your religion”
11. Abu Bakr states that, “If any people stop jihad Allah will cover them all with punishment” al Tabarani, (agreeable chain)
12. Ibn Asakir narrates that when Abu Bakr became the Khalifah he...
34 (Tawbah 38-39)
35 (Tawba 81-82)
36 (Abu Dawud – Authentic
stood on the pulpit and among what he said was, “ If people do not practice jihad Allah will inflict them with poverty”
One might say that ‘I see some people not practicing jihad nevertheless they are wealthy’. The answer is that wealth is not the amount of money you have, but wealth is a feeling of contentment and satisfaction that exists in the heart. When people stop practicing jihad they miss out on the booty of war. When they do that and instead turn their attention and effort to making wealth from various other means, they get involved in a lot of prohibited methods of making money.You then rarely find anyone among them whose wealth is all pure halal. They became greedy over miser things of this world. That made them humiliated and they became slaves to money.
But the mujahid is free of greed and is depending on Allah for his provisions. Allah provides for him from the booty. He wins it by his sword and it is pure halal.
13. Abu Hurairah narrates that the Messenger of Allah said: “Whoever dies and has not fought or had the intention of fighting dies on a branch of hypocrisy”37
14. Abu Umamah narrates that the Messenger of Allah said: “Whoever has not fought or prepared a fighter or taken care of a fighter in his absence, Allah will strike him with a disaster” Abu Dawud (Agreeable)
An Advice To The Ones Who Stay Behind38
Know! Oh abstainer from that which has been obligated of jihaad!Deviator from the ways of success and correctness, that you have been exposed to expulsion and relegation. By Allah! Prevented from happiness by obtaining the objective. addWhat that I knew! The reason for your abstinence from fighting and plunging yourself into the battles of the brave. Your miserliness in the path of Allah with your soul and wealth. All this is due to distant hopes, fear of...
38 Note: this sub-title is a full translation
from volume 1, page 113-132, of the original Arabic book –inserted by the editor.
an on-slaughting life span and hatred of leaving a beloved from family, wealth, son, servant, or relative. A blood brother of yours, a compassionate relative, a generous supporter, a cherished friend, working extra pious deeds, love of a beautiful wife, a preventative high rank, a lofty position, a raised palace, a long shade, magnificent garments or wholesome food. There is not beside these that hinder you from jihaad and none beside these distant you from the Lord of the worshipers.
By Allah! What is this from you? Oh brother! Did you not hear the words of the Most High?
“Oh you who believe what is the matter with you that when you are asked to march forward in the cause of Allah you cling heavily to the earth are you pleased with the life of this world rather than the hereafter but little is the enjoyment of the life of this world as compared with the hereafter”39
Hearken! To that which I dictate to you of decisive evidences and listen that which I present to you of glaring proofs, so that you may learn, nothing hinders from jihaad, not even the two Holy Mosques40
and there is no reason for your delay except the lower self and the devil.•
“But I fear death!”As for your appease to distant hopes, fear of an on-slaughting life span, vigilance of death which must occur and fear of the path which must be traversed, by Allah! Verily! Bravery does not shorten the life of the brave just as refrainment does not lengthen the life of those who lag behind:
“And every nation has its appointed term when there term is reached neither an hour can they delay nor an hour can they advance.”41“
And Allah grants respite to none when his appointed time comes and Allah is all aware of what you do.”42.....
40 Sheikhul-Islam, Ibn-Taymia has quoted from the consensus of the scholars: The residing of a man in
the land of ribaat as a muraabit (one who makes ribaat) is better than his residing in Makkah, Medinah or Baitul-Maqdis. See Majmu’a Al Fataawa: 28/5 by Ibn-Taymia.
41 (Al A’raaf:34)42 (Al-Munaafiqoon:11)